Oxidating phosphorylation

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At right is an electron micrograph, provided by Dr.

Carmen Mannella of the Wadsworth Center, of a Neurospora mitochondrion in a frozen sample in the absence of fixatives or stains that might alter the appearance of internal structures.

Every day, we build bones, move muscles, eat food, think, and perform many other activities with our bodies.

The energy produced from the flow of electrons drives oxidative phosphorylation in which ATP is synthesized via the addition of phosphor (phosphorylation) to ADP.

ATP is synthesized primarily by a two-step process consisting of an electron-transport chain and a proton gradient.

This process is based on electrochemistry and equilibrium, as well as thermodynamics.

This final stage marks the ATP payoff, in which the NADH and FADH produced in earlier phases enter the inner membrane of the mitochondria where they are oxidized.

As a result of the oxidation of NADH and FADH2, electrons are released.

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